Plumbing is the art and science of creating and maintaining sanitary conditions in buildings used by humans. It is also the art and science of installing, repairing, and servicing in these same buildings a plumbing system that includes the pipes, fixtures, and appurtenances necessary for bringing in the water supply and removing liquid and water-carried waste.
The bathroom is not only the place where the “call of nature” is answered, but also the location utilized for privacy and showering (as well as dressing). A bathroom is a place where most of the plumbing is located in a house.
Bathrooms in large private homes were not unknown even in the eighteenth century.
Beautifully equipped marble bathrooms are still preserved in several European palaces and mansions. However, it was not until the nineteenth century that bathrooms in private homes became common place. Fixtures generally included a toilet, bidet, wash basin, bath, mirror, and shelves.
In the twentieth century, the equipping of bathrooms became a separate industry with a wide variety of special forms of bathroom furniture and fixtures. The materials used included porcelain, enamel, plastic, wood, and stainless steel.
People working with the installation and maintenance of bathrooms and kitchens are exposed to many dangers and safety hazards. Applying good common sense and following a few plumbing safety rules can prevent a great deal of personal injury.
Plumbing Safety Tips
Electric power tools with abrasive cutting wheels should be properly grounded. Wear eye protection and gloves.
When using a ladder, place the ladder base one-fourth of the ladder length away from the structure against which the ladder is leaning.
The maximum height for horses supporting scaffold plat-forms is 16 feet (4.88 m).
Vertical braces should be located every 8 feet (2.44 m)in trenches in hard, compact ground. Horizontal stringers in such soil conditions should be placed every 4 feet (1.22 m).
A good item to have on any job requiring the use of anopen flame is afire extinguisher. Open flames are used by plumbers in such tools as a Prestolite torch, a melting pottank, and welding equipment.
An approved carbon dioxide (CO2) or a dry-powderfire extinguisher is usually useful. The dry-powder CO2 extinguisher (which is actually composed of99 percent baking soda and 1 percent drying agent) is also one of the best agents to use when fighting fires in or around electrical equipment.
The maximum spacing for rainwater leaders (downspouts) is 75 feet (23 m). The recommended standard is 150 square feet(14 square meters) of roof area to 1 square inch (6.5 cm2) of leader area.
The instrument for measuring relative humidity is called ahygrometer.
Bread can be packed in a water line to hold back water long enough to solder a joint where water continues to trickle, even if valves are shut off. The bread will dissolve when the water is turned on, and it can beflushed out of the systemeasily.
To replace a defective section or to add a fitting to a rigid pipeline, in most cases you will need to buckle the new portion back into the line in sections.
For cast-iron pipe with lead joints and hard copper tubing, three sections and four joints will be necessary.
On plastic pipe through 2 inches(51 mm), two sections 4 feet (122 cm) long and three joints will generally work. Fig. 2-1 shows an example of 2-inch (51 mm) plastic PVC pressure water line after it was repaired and reassembled.